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Le château de Meudon - - Observatoire de Paris
The château of Meudon has known a chequered history: originally a pleasure grotto, it became a château-appartement for royal courtiers, then an artillery battery with military quarters, and was finally transformed into an astronomical observatory with a monumental refracting telescope. The existing château of Meudon is called the «château Neuf» (the «new château») in contrast to the «château Vieux» (the «old château») which was seriously damaged by fire in 1795 and was finally demolished in 1806. The Château Neuf has had en eventful history. It was born as a small summer palace, designed by Le Primatice (1504-1570), an artist from Bologna: a pavilion overlooked a richly decorated artificial grotto, embellished with numerous fountains.

The grotto of the Meudon château, engraving by Israël Silvestre, 1683. When Meudon became the Grand Dauphin’s royal residence in 1695, the grotto was replaced by a new château, and so the number of apartments increased. Jules Hardouin-Mansart (1646-1708) finished there one of his last creations. From the pleasure grotto to the château Neuf After the château Vieux, which had been taken over by the committee of public safety (the comité de Salut Public) for military uses, was destroyed following some unfortunate artillery experiments, the château Neuf became the residence of the King of Rome. It was still an imperial residence under Napoléon III on the eve of the 1870 war. With the encirclement of Paris and the retreat of the National Guard from Meudon to the Capital, the second bavarian corps established its quarters on the Meudon hills. The terrace, with its unequalled view, was transformed into a fortified battery. The park was changed radically and the trees were cut down. The inhabitants of Meudon were expelled and sent to Versailles.

Artillery battles The artillery battles between the Bavarians and the Issy and Vanves fortresses did not affect the château. However, two days after the armistice, a fire ignited there. The fire lasted for three whole days. Finally, the gunners of the Commune launched a few projectiles towards the Château. With the return of peace, and the fact that the walls of the château had survived relatively well, various projects for its restoration were proposed, but came to nothing. The park became the headquarters of the 3rd infantry division of the 2nd corps; the ruins were pillaged and completely abandoned.
The Meudon Observatory, showing the ruined château Héliog Dujardin. Annales de l’Observatoire d’astronomie physique de Paris sis Parc de Meudon, 1896, Pl. III. What remained of the château Neuf was saved by the addition of an enormous dome housing a monumental astronomical refractor. Starting in1876, Jules Janssen had in effect already established his astrophysical observatory in a part of the park. The reconstruction of the building was entrusted to the architect Constant Moyeux. The dome itself was designed by Janssen and the Cail workshops. The work itself lasted ten years, from 1880 to 1890. The first observation with the large refractor took place on the 15th of December 1893.

Château and large dome 2007 - Frédéric Arenou 2007 - Frédéric Arenou Last update on 16 June 2015
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Château de Meudon - WikiVisually
The Grande Coupole of the Grande Coupole из Observatoire de Paris-Meudon occupies the restored Château Neuf at Обсерватория Париж-Медон занимает восстановленное Château Neuf в Meudon . Meudon . The former Château de Meudon , on a hill in Бывший Шато де Медон, на холме в Meudon , about 4 kilometres southwest of Paris, occupied the terraced steeply sloping site. Meudon , примерно в 4 км к юго - западу от Парижа, заняли террасный увалистой сайт. It was acquired by Он был приобретен Louis XIV , who greatly expanded it as a residence for Людовик XIV , который значительно расширил его в качестве резиденции для Louis, le Grand Dauphin . Луи Ле Гранд Dauphin . It was largely ignored under Это в значительной степени игнорировались под Louis XV and Людовик XV и Louis XVI , but became the official residence of the King of Rome from 1812, and was occupied by Jérôme Bonaparte under the Людовик XVI , но стал официальной резиденцией короля Рима с 1812 года, и был занят Жерома Бонапарта под Second Empire . Вторая империя . The main building was largely destroyed in a fire in 1871, and it is now the site of the Главное здание было в значительной степени разрушен во время пожара в 1871 году, и теперь сайт Observatoire de Paris-Meudon . Обсерватория Париж-Медон.

History История

Nothing is known of the medieval Ничего не известно о средневековых fortress that preceded the manoir du Val de Meudon before the 14th century. крепость , которая предшествовала MANOIR - дю - Валь - де - Meudon до 14 - го века. In 1527, the castle was given by Cardinal В 1527 году замок был отдан кардиналу Antoine Sanguin to his niece Антуан Sanguin своей племяннице Anne de Pisseleu, duchesse d'Étampes , mistress of Анн де Pisseleu, дюшес д'Этамп , хозяйка François I . Франциск I . Around 1540, a Около 1540 года, A Renaissance style château , was completed at the edge of the present terrace. Ренессанс стиль шато, был завершен на краю настоящей террасе. In 1552, the duchesse d' Étampes ceded the château to В 1552 году герцогиня d ' Этамп уступивший château к Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine , who embellished its interiors and created Renaissance style gardens commemorated in poetry by Чарльз, кардинал Лотарингский , который украсил его интерьеры и создал сады стиле ренессанс запечатлевшие в поэзии Pierre de Ronsard . Ронсар . The Italian architect, painter and sculptor Итальянский архитектор, художник и скульптор Primaticcio executed the Приматиччо выполнил grotto in the Italian mode, with rooms carved in the rock and filled with fountains. грот в итальянском режиме, с номерами , вырезанные в скале и наполненными фонтанов. Remnants of the terrace that supported it now support the great dome of the Остатки террасы, которые поддержали его теперь поддерживают большой купол Paris Observatory . Парижской обсерватории . The orangery that survives may have substantial 16th-century origins as well. оранжерея , что выживает может иметь существенное происхождение 16-го века , а также. At the death of Cardinal Sanguin in 1574, Meudon reverted to the После смерти кардинала в 1574 Sanguin, Meudon возвращён к House of Guise until 1654, when, battered by the Не Гизы до 1654 года , когда, пострадала от Wars of Religion and the Войны религии и тому Fronde , it was purchased by Фронда , он был приобретен Abel Servien , surintendant des finances , who launched ambitious works of rebuilding during the five years in which he possessed it. Абель Servien , surintendant де финансов, которые запущены масштабные работы по восстановлению в течение пяти лет , в которой он владел им.

Meudon was renovated and enlarged, probably by Meudon был отремонтирован и расширен, вероятно, Louis Le Vau , who constructed a double-height oval Лево , который построил двойной высоты овала salon . салон . The present terrace—260 metres long, 140 m wide and 14 m high at its retaining wall— was established, a vast project of manual earth-moving. Настоящие террасы-260 метров, шириной 140 м и 14 м в высоту на его удерживающего была создана для настенного, обширный проект ручного землеройной. In 1679, the château was sold by Servien's heir to Louvois , the minister of В 1679 году замок был продан наследником Servien к Лавуа , министр Louis XIV , who continued to improve it inside and out, until his death in 1691. Above all, he commissioned André Le Nôtre to construct grand gardens and fountains fed by elaborate hydraulic works. Людовик XIV , который продолжал улучшать его внутри и снаружи, вплоть до своей смерти в 1691 году , прежде всего, он заказал Андре Le Notre построить величественные сады и фонтаны , питаемые сложных гидротехнических сооружений.

Le Grand Dauphin , son of Louis XIV [ edit ] Le Grand Dauphin, сын Людовика XIV ..

.. Under Louis XV & Louis XVI [ edit ] Под Людовика XV и Людовика XVI ..

.. Under The Revolution and French Empires [ edit ] Под революцией и Французской империями ..

.. Current Status [ edit ] Текущий статус ..

Jules Janssen chose this site as the location for the present observatory in 1874, in preference to Malmaison , and it was built partly incorporating some of Meudon's exterior stonework. Жюль Янссен выбрал этот сайт в качестве места для настоящей обсерватории в 1874 году, отдавая им предпочтение перед Мальмезон , и он был построен частично включающий некоторые из внешней кладкой MEUDON в. Some of the outbuildings are inhabited today by Некоторые из подсобных помещений заселены сегодня astronomers attached to the Observatoire. Астрономы , прикрепленные к Обсерватории. Its history since that date can be followed at Его история, начиная с этой даты можно проследить на Observatoire de Paris . Обсерватория Париж. ..
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Observatoire de Paris - Wikivisually
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