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Most Effective Ways To Reduce Laptop Overheating In Linux
Last updated July 18, 2016 By Abhishek Prakash
http://itsfoss.com/reduce-overheating-laptops-linux/
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General overview of the Linux file system
http://www.tldp.org/LDP/intro-linux/html/sect_03_01.html
http://www.tldp.org/LDP/intro-linux/html/index.html

Linux filesystems: definition, structure, selection, optimization
http://www.linfo.org/filesystem.html
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Thread: upstart-udev-bridge uses 100% CPU after upgrade 11.04 -> 11.10 Тема: upstart-udev-bridge использует 100% процессор после обновления 11.04 -> 11.10
.. Yes, a workaround is to remove the laptop battery, it actually says this on the bug report too... I did a fresh install, but the problem remains when the battery is connected. Да, обходным решением является удаление батареи ноутбука, на самом деле это говорит об этом в отчете об ошибке. Я сделал новую установку, но проблема остается, когда аккумулятор подключен. ..
http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1867934
http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1867934

Upstart calling script (for inserted USB-drive) Вызов сценария Upstart (для вставленного USB-накопителя)
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/589841/upstart-calling-script-for-inserted-usb-drive
http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=stackoverflow.com/questions/589841/upstart-calling-script-for-inserted-usb-drive

inetd

Jan. 27th, 2017 06:17 am
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inetd › Wiki › ubuntuusers.de
http://wiki.ubuntuusers.de/inetd/
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eject: unable to find or open device for: `cdrom'

input 6th November 2011, 05:33 PM When I type eject in a terminal I get this error:eject: unable to find or open device for: `cdrom' But in Gnome it works fine. How can I solve this problem. Thanks

# eject /dev/sr0

input 7th November 2011, 11:57 AM What you have is a missing symbolic link "cdrom->sr0" in /dev. Thanks for the reply. But how can I make a symbolic link. Thanks

"man ln" A better reference is provided by "info ln".

The reference documentation will tell you about it. The short form is to use a root login command line and the sequence:

cd /dev
ln -s sr0 cdrom

The first command puts the working directory in /dev, the second creates the symbolic link.

This must be done as root as only root can create files in /dev

input 7th November 2011, 02:31 PM Thank you for explaning this. It works :) ---------- Post added at 02:31 PM ---------- Previous post was at 02:01 PM ---------- I still have the same problem with a reboot. The message is: eject: tried to use `/media/cdrom' as device name but it is no block device eject: unable to find or open device for: `cdrom

jpollard 7th November 2011, 03:11 PM Are you using Fedora 15 or 16? If so, report it as a bug. (F15 has /dev being a memory resident filesystem managed by udev.

And that makes the simple solutions impossible. Somewhere there is a directive missing from the udev configuration to have this recreated on each boot. ..
http://forums.fedoraforum.org/archive/index.php/t-271899.html


“eject” command not working

~$ eject -v

eject: using default device `cdrom' eject: device name is `cdrom' eject: expanded name is `/media/cdrom' eject: `/media/cdrom' is a link to `/media/cdrom0' eject: `/media/cdrom0' is not mounted eject: `/media/cdrom0' is not a mount point eject: tried to use `/media/cdrom0' as device name but it is no block device eject: unable to find or open device for: `cdrom'

The tray doesnt open.. How do I open tray using command line? I am using Ubuntu 9.10 64bit and I have no dvd inserted in the DVDROM...

Re:

Depending on your device and how it is set up one of those commands should work:

eject /dev/cdrom
eject /dev/cdrw
eject /dev/dvd
eject /dev/dvdrom
eject /dev/dvdrw

If none of these work then look for the correct device in the list generated by this command:

ls -l /dev | grep '\->'

You can also specify the raw device:

eject /dev/sda
eject /dev/hdd

http://superuser.com/questions/124856/eject-command-not-working
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SoundConfiguration - Debian Wiki

.. 'adduser USER_NAME audio' to allow a specific user to write to the /dev/dsp, /dev/mixer and /dev/audio devices and thus output sound from the soundcard ..

.. To switch between ALSA and OSS, you should run:

* dpkg-reconfigure linux-sound-base

(see /usr/share/doc/linux-sound-base/README.Debian)

http://wiki.debian.org/SoundConfiguration

http://wiki.debian.org/SoundCard

http://wiki.debian.org/Kernel

http://www.underbit.com/products/mad/#using

http://wiki.debian.org/SoundFAQ

http://wiki.debian.org/OSS
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Linux Documentation Search all of the Linux documentation available on this site:

http://linux.die.net/
http://linux.die.net/man/
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/usr/bin/openbox


Openbox-Message: "Failed to open the display from the DISPLAY environment variable"

cd /usr/bin/

exec xinit openbox

exec xinit awesome
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alsa | maurizio siagri
http://mauriziosiagri.wordpress.com/tag/alsa/

Configurare l’audio in ubuntu server 13.04 settembre 1, 2013 maurizio siagri
http://mauriziosiagri.wordpress.com/2013/09/01/configurare-laudio-in-ubuntu-server-13-04/

pulseaudio | maurizio siagri
http://mauriziosiagri.wordpress.com/tag/pulseaudio/

asound | maurizio siagri
http://mauriziosiagri.wordpress.com/tag/asound/


Informazioni schede audio in linux ubuntu debian | maurizio siagri
agosto 8, 2013

http://mauriziosiagri.wordpress.com/2013/02/09/audio-in-linux-oss-alsa-pulseaudio-ubuntu-linux/

http://mauriziosiagri.wordpress.com/2013/02/09/audio-in-linux-oss-alsa-pulseaudio-ubuntu-linux/

.. aplay -l

aplay: device_list:221: no soundcard found...

.. II file principale di configurazione si trova in : /usr/share/alsa/alsa.conf

nel file di configurazione  la scheda di default  è impostata a 0  (la prima individuata )

cat  /usr/share/alsa/alsa.conf

... defaults.ctl.card 0  defaults.pcm.card 0   default.pcm.device   0

Per visualizzare le informazioni sul sistema e sull ‘installazione di alsa è displonibile questo utile scritp alsa-info.sh accessibile anche dalla pagina Help To Debug – AlsaProject.

wget http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-info.sh

chmod +x alsa-info.sh

./alsa-info.sh

Di seguito la parte inziale dell’articolato e completo output  generato dallo script

.. Servers audio installati

Per controllare il/i servers audio ( Audio in Linux: Oss, ALSA, pulseaudio ubuntu linux )  installati si può usare per pulseaudio ( Pulseaudio ubuntu ) un comando del tipo :

dpkg -l pulseaudio | grep ii

ii pulseaudio 1:4.0-0ubuntu6 amd64 PulseAudio sound server

per alsa

dpkg -l alsa | grep ii

Server audio attivo

Verificare quale server audio è attivo con:

ps aux | grep [p]ulseaudio

e

ps aus | grep [a]lsa

Altri Comandi

Per evidenziare specifici dettagli quando è sono noto il modulo legato alla scheda possono essere:

cat /proc/interrupts | grep intel

..

dmesg | grep -i intel | grep -i hda

..

[SOLVED] Two snd_hda_intel – how to get rid of one? Problemi: Se si ottiene No sound/ Dummy Output Only  riavviare il server alsa conf

http://www.kubuntuforums.net/showthread.php?53595-SOLVED-Two-snd_hda_intel-how-to-get-rid-of-one

sudo alsa force-reload

Altro

sudo depmod -a

Categorie:Uncategorized Tag:alsa, alsa-info, asound, cards, periferiche audio, proc/asound, pulseaudio, schede audio linux

http://mauriziosiagri.wordpress.com/2013/08/08/informazioni-scheda-audio-in-linux-ubuntu-debian/
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11.04 - How do I get my blacked out ttys back? - Ask Ubuntu

Original Question:

After I replaced my Ubuntu 10.10 with 11.04 all I get when I Ctrl+Alt+F1–F6 into a tty is a black screen.

Also when I boot there's a while of black screen after grub2 menu is displayed. Then until just before gnome starts it stays black.

I have an Nvida Geforce Quadro FX 770M on my HP EliteBook 8530w. How do I get my ttys (aka 'virtual terminals') to work again?


http://askubuntu.com/questions/43386/how-do-i-get-my-blacked-out-ttys-back
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FTE Text Editor
http://fte.sourceforge.net/

runit-quickstart Getting started with the runit - a UNIX init scheme with service supervision
http://kchard.github.io/runit-quickstart/

chpst(8) manual page - smarden.org
http://smarden.org/runit/chpst.8.html

Администрирование Использование runit для своих сервисов
runit - collection of run scripts
http://smarden.org/runit/runscripts.html
http://habrahabr.ru/post/83775/
Администрирование  Web-интерфейс для runit
http://habrahabr.ru/blogs/sysadm/84627/
http://github.com/Undev/runit-man
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к посту ---

Awesome Window Manager 3.x
http://www.cheatography.com/fievel/cheat-sheets/awesome-window-manager-3-x/
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4058749.html


Awesome 3.x - awesome

Awesome 3.x

This is the man page of awesome version 3.4.1. It can also be used for a large part with previous versions 3.x, because there are not much differences ; for example, the commands Mod4 + w (Open main menu) in version 3.3 and Mod4 + n (Minimize client) in 3.4 version have been added. Nevertheless, you may read their specific man pages if it is necessary.
Contents
[hide]

1 AWESOME
1.1 NAME
1.2 SYNOPSIS
1.3 DESCRIPTION
1.4 OPTIONS
1.5 DEFAULT MOUSE BINDINGS
1.5.1 Navigation
1.5.2 Layout modification
1.6 DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS
1.6.1 Window manager control
1.6.2 Clients
1.6.3 Navigation
1.6.4 Layout modification
1.7 CUSTOMIZATION
1.8 SIGNALS
1.9 SEE ALSO
1.10 BUGS
1.11 AUTHORS
1.12 WWW
1.13 NOTES

AWESOME
NAME
awesome - awesome window manager
SYNOPSIS
awesome [-v | --version] [-h | --help] [-c | --config FILE] [-k | --check]
DESCRIPTION
awesome is a window manager for X. It manages windows in different layouts, like floating or tiled. Any layout can be applied dynamically, optimizing the environment for the application in use and the task currently being performed. In a tiled layout, windows are managed in a master and stacking area. The master area contains the windows which currently need the most attention, whereas the stacking area contains all other windows. In a floating layout windows can be resized and moved freely. Dialog windows are always managed as floating, regardless of the layout currently applied. The spiral and dwindle layouts are special cases of the tiled layout where the stacking area is arranged in a spiral for the former or as a rectangular fractal for the later. Windows are grouped by tags in awesome. Each window can be tagged with one or more tags. Selecting certain tags displays all windows with these tags. awesome can contain small wiboxes which can display anything you want: all available tags, the current layout, the title of the visible windows, text, etc.
OPTIONS
-v, --version

Print version information to standard output, then exit.

-h, --help

Print help information, then exit.

-c, --config FILE

Use an alternate configuration file instead of $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/awesome/rc.lua.

-k, --check

Check configuration file syntax.

DEFAULT MOUSE BINDINGS
Navigation
Button1 on tag name

View tag.

Button4, Button5 on tag name

Switch to previous or next tag.

Button4, Button5 on root window

Switch to previous or next tag.

Button1, Button3, Button4, Button5 on layout symbol

Switch to previous or next layout.

Layout modification
Mod4 + Button1 on tag name

Tag current client with this tag only.

Mod4 + Button3 on tag name

Toggle this tag for client.

Button3 on tag name

Add this tag to current view.

Mod4 + Button1 on client window

Move window.

Mod4 + Button3 on client window

Resize window.

DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS
Window manager control
Mod4 + Control + r

Restart awesome.

Mod4 + Shift + q

Quit awesome.

Mod4 + r

Run prompt.

Mod4 + x

Run Lua code prompt.

Mod4 + Return

Spawn terminal emulator.

Mod4 + w

Open main menu.

Clients
Mod4 + Shift + r

Redraw the focused window.

Mod4 + m

Maximize client.

Mod4 + n

Minimize client.

Mod4 + f

Set client fullscreen.

Mod4 + Shift + c

Kill focused client.

Mod4 + t

Mark a client.

Navigation
Mod4 + j

Focus next client.

Mod4 + k

Focus previous client.

Mod4 + u

Focus first urgent client.

Mod4 + Left

View previous tag.

Mod4 + Right

View next tag.

Mod4 + 1-9

Switch to tag 1-9.

Mod4 + Control + j

Focus next screen.

Mod4 + Control + k

Focus previous screen.

Mod4 + Escape

Focus previously selected tag set.

Layout modification
Mod4 + Shift + j

Switch client with next client.

Mod4 + Shift + k

Switch client with previous client.

Mod4 + o

Send client to next screen.

Mod4 + h

Decrease master width factor by 5%.

Mod4 + l

Increase master width factor by 5%.

Mod4 + Shift + h

Increase number of master windows by 1.

Mod4 + Shift + l

Decrease number of master windows by 1.

Mod4 + Control + h

Increase number of columns for non-master windows by 1.

Mod4 + Control + l

Decrease number of columns for non-master windows by 1.

Mod4 + space

Switch to next layout.

Mod4 + Shift + space

Switch to previous layout.

Mod4 + Control + space

Toggle client floating status.

Mod4 + Control + Return

Swap focused client with master.

Mod4 + Control + 1-9

Toggle tag view.

Mod4 + Shift + 1-9

Tag client with tag.

Mod4 + Shift + Control + 1-9

Toggle tag on client.

Mod4 + Shift + F1-9

Tag marked clients with tag.

CUSTOMIZATION
awesome is customized by creating a custom $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/awesome/rc.lua file.
SIGNALS
awesome can be restarted by sending it a SIGHUP.
SEE ALSO
awesomerc(5) awesome-client(1)
BUGS
Of course there's no bug in awesome. But there may be unexpected behaviors.
AUTHORS
Julien Danjou <julien@danjou.info[1]> and others.
WWW
http://awesome.naquadah.org
NOTES

1. julien@danjou.info

mailto:julien@danjou.info

http://awesome.naquadah.org/wiki/Awesome_3.x
oio11: (Default)
About Smart Boot Manager

About Smart Boot Manager Copyright (c) 2000 by James Su (suzhe@gnuchina.org), Lonius (november@video.mdc.tsinghua.edu.cn) and Christopher Li (chrisl@gnuchina.org)

Smart Boot Manager (SBM) is an OS independent and full-featured boot manager with an easy-to-use user interface. ..

http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/about.html

BootManager - LinuxWiki.org - Linux Wiki und Freie Software
http://linuxwiki.de/BootManager

Linux Links - The Linux Portal: Software/System/Boot
http://www.linuxlinks.com/Software/System/Boot/index.shtml
oio11: (Default)
How to fix “X: user not authorized to run the X server, aborting.”?

Posted on September 26, 2010 by Black God

This is just a simple tips to solve a error message when you start your X session with “startx” command as normal user. The error message may be like this:

blackgod@debian:~$ startx

xauth:  creating new authority file /home/blackgod/.Xauthority

In linux, by default root user is allowed to run X server in most cases. So you don’t face this issue while running “startx” as root user.

Basically the Xorg X server needs to be configured to to authorize this user. Where should we configure this?

/etc/X11/Xwrapper.config – This file has as setting called “allowed_users”. It can accept three values:

1. root 2. anybody 3. console

The above values are self explanatory. You can edit this value to set as anybody for normal user to start X server. If normal user starts X server from console, console can also be set. It can be like this.

" allowed_users=anybody "

In Debian and its derivatives like Ubuntu, you can run the following command to do it in user friendly screen as shown below.

# dpkg-reconfigure x11-common

QNAP TS-110 NAS Debian, Linux, TS-110, X Server, x11-common, Xorg, Xwrapper.config

http://karuppuswamy.com/wordpress/2010/09/26/how-to-fix-x-user-not-authorized-to-run-the-x-server-aborting/
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Linux From Scratch - Version SVN-20161027 Chapter 7. System Configuration
* Prev General Network Configuration
* Next The Bash Shell Startup Files

7.6. System V Bootscript Usage and Configuration 7.6.1. How Do the System V Bootscripts Work?

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/view/development/chapter07/usage.html

Booting and Shutting Down
http://www.ube.ege.edu.tr/~erciyes/unix_sysadm/kent/boot~1.htm

Chapter 15. init and runlevels - linux-training.be
http://linux-training.be/sysadmin/ch15.html

6.52. Sysvinit-2.86 - Open Source Software on erdfunkstelle.de
http://oss.erdfunkstelle.de/lfs-de/6.3/online/chapter06/sysvinit.html

Signals - The Linux Documentation Project
http://tldp.org/LDP/Bash-Beginners-Guide/html/sect_12_01.html

Other (human) Languages - Linux Documentation
http://linux.die.net/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/other-lang.html

The Linux Documentation Project Works
http://www.tldp.org/docs.html

The Linux Documentation Project Links: Non-English Information
http://www.tldp.org/links/nenglish.html

http://linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Keyboard-and-Console-HOWTO.html
http://www.sensi.org/~ak/linuxfaq/index_ru.html

RU.LINUX Frequently Asked Questions Alexander Kanavin, ak@sensi.org Версия от 18.02.2003.

Сборник часто задаваемых вопросов (с ответами), связанных с ОС Linux. Последняя версия находится по адреcу http://www.sensi.org/~ak/linuxfaq/

http://.. /~ak/linuxfaq/rulinux.faq.html

RU.LINUX Frequently Asked Questions | Система, ядро, утилиты ...
http://www.linuxcenter.ru/lib/articles/system/rulinux_faq.phtml

RU.LINUX Frequently Asked Questions: Русификация - OpenNet
http://www.opennet.ru/.../rulinuxfaq/rulinux.faq-3.html

Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide
http://www.tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/

Материалы за 18.10.2003 - Страница 7 - Документация по Linux
http://linuxdoc.ru/2003/10/18/page/7/
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Dpkg error exit status 2

.. subprocess dpkg-deb --fsys-tarfile returned error exit status 2 ..

Answer 1

The package install rule of the Makefile is creating the Debian package using xz compression. Now, this kind of compression is supported by versions of dpkg equal or higher than 1.15.6. So, in order to solve your problem, you should update dpkg to a newer version. Or install gdebi, and install with that application. .. answered Jul 26 '15 at 15:14 kyodake

http://askubuntu.com/questions/652941/dpkg-error-exit-status-2
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'locate' command not working [SOLVED] / Newbie Corner / Arch Linux ...

.. updating .. the database. "updatedb" as root ..

Forum Rules There's no such thing as a stupid question, but there sure are a lot of inquisitive idiots !

http://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=80365
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links2 - a cross platform console based web browser which also renders images

February 12, 2007 Posted by Ravi

http://www.aboutlinux.info/2007/02/links2-cross-platform-console-based-web.html


[resolu] Parametrage des Locales / Installation d'Ubuntu / Forum ...

#1 Le 19/07/2012, `a 13:43 arno974

[resolu] Parametrage des Locales

http://forum.ubuntu-fr.org/viewtopic.php?id=986681

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