oio11: (Default)
Пирамиды в европейской архитектуре XVIII века

October 16th, 2012, 03:37 pm
nezvanov

Два с лишним года назад я посвятил одну из публикаций в своем ЖЖ пирамиде Цестия (http://nezvanov.livejournal.com/4976.html). Я показал, что пропорции этой пирамиды замечательно соответствуют указаниям одного из самых известных алхимиков XVII века Микаэля Майера относительно процедуры получения философского камня. Таких совпадений не бывает, решительно объявил я и счел это удивительное соответствие серьезным аргументом в пользу гипотезы о том, что пирамида Цестия на самом деле была построена во времена расцвета и популярности алхимии, то есть в XVII веке. В энциклопедиях мы можем прочесть, что пирамида Цестия была отреставрирована Римским папой Александром VII в 1660-х годах. Я предположил, что Александр VII не отреставрировал, а построил эту пирамиду, рассчитывая, что после своей смерти он будет там погребен (с тем, чтобы его душа претерпела «трансмутацию» и стала «философским камнем», то есть достигла бы высшего совершенства).

В развитие своей гипотезы я хочу порассуждать вот о чем: какое воздействие на умы европейского общества могло оказать появление в Риме, с его канонически барочной архитектурой, столь диковинного строения? Это должно было неизбежно стать сенсацией, причем сенсацией с оттенком скандала: мы можем предполагать, что Католическая Церковь не стала выполнять волю почившего в бозе папы и отказалась хоронить его в пирамиде. Александра VII в итоге погребли в соборе Святого Петра, причем к созданию могилы приступили только через пять лет после его смерти. Тем не менее, естественно было бы ожидать, что это архитектурное новшество должно было породить моду. Причем, из-за негативного (как мы полагаем) отношения Церкви к римской пирамиде, подражания должны были бы появиться в тех странах, где власть Католического престола не признавалась. И такие подражания появились. ..
http://nezvanov.livejournal.com/10270.html
oio11: (Default)
Le château de Meudon - - Observatoire de Paris
The château of Meudon has known a chequered history: originally a pleasure grotto, it became a château-appartement for royal courtiers, then an artillery battery with military quarters, and was finally transformed into an astronomical observatory with a monumental refracting telescope. The existing château of Meudon is called the «château Neuf» (the «new château») in contrast to the «château Vieux» (the «old château») which was seriously damaged by fire in 1795 and was finally demolished in 1806. The Château Neuf has had en eventful history. It was born as a small summer palace, designed by Le Primatice (1504-1570), an artist from Bologna: a pavilion overlooked a richly decorated artificial grotto, embellished with numerous fountains.

The grotto of the Meudon château, engraving by Israël Silvestre, 1683. When Meudon became the Grand Dauphin’s royal residence in 1695, the grotto was replaced by a new château, and so the number of apartments increased. Jules Hardouin-Mansart (1646-1708) finished there one of his last creations. From the pleasure grotto to the château Neuf After the château Vieux, which had been taken over by the committee of public safety (the comité de Salut Public) for military uses, was destroyed following some unfortunate artillery experiments, the château Neuf became the residence of the King of Rome. It was still an imperial residence under Napoléon III on the eve of the 1870 war. With the encirclement of Paris and the retreat of the National Guard from Meudon to the Capital, the second bavarian corps established its quarters on the Meudon hills. The terrace, with its unequalled view, was transformed into a fortified battery. The park was changed radically and the trees were cut down. The inhabitants of Meudon were expelled and sent to Versailles.

Artillery battles The artillery battles between the Bavarians and the Issy and Vanves fortresses did not affect the château. However, two days after the armistice, a fire ignited there. The fire lasted for three whole days. Finally, the gunners of the Commune launched a few projectiles towards the Château. With the return of peace, and the fact that the walls of the château had survived relatively well, various projects for its restoration were proposed, but came to nothing. The park became the headquarters of the 3rd infantry division of the 2nd corps; the ruins were pillaged and completely abandoned.
The Meudon Observatory, showing the ruined château Héliog Dujardin. Annales de l’Observatoire d’astronomie physique de Paris sis Parc de Meudon, 1896, Pl. III. What remained of the château Neuf was saved by the addition of an enormous dome housing a monumental astronomical refractor. Starting in1876, Jules Janssen had in effect already established his astrophysical observatory in a part of the park. The reconstruction of the building was entrusted to the architect Constant Moyeux. The dome itself was designed by Janssen and the Cail workshops. The work itself lasted ten years, from 1880 to 1890. The first observation with the large refractor took place on the 15th of December 1893.

Château and large dome 2007 - Frédéric Arenou 2007 - Frédéric Arenou Last update on 16 June 2015
http://www.obspm.fr/le-chateau-de-meudon.html
http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u= http://www.obspm.fr/le-chateau-de-meudon.html

Château de Meudon - WikiVisually
http://wikivisually.com/wiki/Château_de_Meudon
The Grande Coupole of the Grande Coupole из Observatoire de Paris-Meudon occupies the restored Château Neuf at Обсерватория Париж-Медон занимает восстановленное Château Neuf в Meudon . Meudon . The former Château de Meudon , on a hill in Бывший Шато де Медон, на холме в Meudon , about 4 kilometres southwest of Paris, occupied the terraced steeply sloping site. Meudon , примерно в 4 км к юго - западу от Парижа, заняли террасный увалистой сайт. It was acquired by Он был приобретен Louis XIV , who greatly expanded it as a residence for Людовик XIV , который значительно расширил его в качестве резиденции для Louis, le Grand Dauphin . Луи Ле Гранд Dauphin . It was largely ignored under Это в значительной степени игнорировались под Louis XV and Людовик XV и Louis XVI , but became the official residence of the King of Rome from 1812, and was occupied by Jérôme Bonaparte under the Людовик XVI , но стал официальной резиденцией короля Рима с 1812 года, и был занят Жерома Бонапарта под Second Empire . Вторая империя . The main building was largely destroyed in a fire in 1871, and it is now the site of the Главное здание было в значительной степени разрушен во время пожара в 1871 году, и теперь сайт Observatoire de Paris-Meudon . Обсерватория Париж-Медон.

History История

Nothing is known of the medieval Ничего не известно о средневековых fortress that preceded the manoir du Val de Meudon before the 14th century. крепость , которая предшествовала MANOIR - дю - Валь - де - Meudon до 14 - го века. In 1527, the castle was given by Cardinal В 1527 году замок был отдан кардиналу Antoine Sanguin to his niece Антуан Sanguin своей племяннице Anne de Pisseleu, duchesse d'Étampes , mistress of Анн де Pisseleu, дюшес д'Этамп , хозяйка François I . Франциск I . Around 1540, a Около 1540 года, A Renaissance style château , was completed at the edge of the present terrace. Ренессанс стиль шато, был завершен на краю настоящей террасе. In 1552, the duchesse d' Étampes ceded the château to В 1552 году герцогиня d ' Этамп уступивший château к Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine , who embellished its interiors and created Renaissance style gardens commemorated in poetry by Чарльз, кардинал Лотарингский , который украсил его интерьеры и создал сады стиле ренессанс запечатлевшие в поэзии Pierre de Ronsard . Ронсар . The Italian architect, painter and sculptor Итальянский архитектор, художник и скульптор Primaticcio executed the Приматиччо выполнил grotto in the Italian mode, with rooms carved in the rock and filled with fountains. грот в итальянском режиме, с номерами , вырезанные в скале и наполненными фонтанов. Remnants of the terrace that supported it now support the great dome of the Остатки террасы, которые поддержали его теперь поддерживают большой купол Paris Observatory . Парижской обсерватории . The orangery that survives may have substantial 16th-century origins as well. оранжерея , что выживает может иметь существенное происхождение 16-го века , а также. At the death of Cardinal Sanguin in 1574, Meudon reverted to the После смерти кардинала в 1574 Sanguin, Meudon возвращён к House of Guise until 1654, when, battered by the Не Гизы до 1654 года , когда, пострадала от Wars of Religion and the Войны религии и тому Fronde , it was purchased by Фронда , он был приобретен Abel Servien , surintendant des finances , who launched ambitious works of rebuilding during the five years in which he possessed it. Абель Servien , surintendant де финансов, которые запущены масштабные работы по восстановлению в течение пяти лет , в которой он владел им.

Meudon was renovated and enlarged, probably by Meudon был отремонтирован и расширен, вероятно, Louis Le Vau , who constructed a double-height oval Лево , который построил двойной высоты овала salon . салон . The present terrace—260 metres long, 140 m wide and 14 m high at its retaining wall— was established, a vast project of manual earth-moving. Настоящие террасы-260 метров, шириной 140 м и 14 м в высоту на его удерживающего была создана для настенного, обширный проект ручного землеройной. In 1679, the château was sold by Servien's heir to Louvois , the minister of В 1679 году замок был продан наследником Servien к Лавуа , министр Louis XIV , who continued to improve it inside and out, until his death in 1691. Above all, he commissioned André Le Nôtre to construct grand gardens and fountains fed by elaborate hydraulic works. Людовик XIV , который продолжал улучшать его внутри и снаружи, вплоть до своей смерти в 1691 году , прежде всего, он заказал Андре Le Notre построить величественные сады и фонтаны , питаемые сложных гидротехнических сооружений.

Le Grand Dauphin , son of Louis XIV [ edit ] Le Grand Dauphin, сын Людовика XIV ..

.. Under Louis XV & Louis XVI [ edit ] Под Людовика XV и Людовика XVI ..

.. Under The Revolution and French Empires [ edit ] Под революцией и Французской империями ..

.. Current Status [ edit ] Текущий статус ..

Jules Janssen chose this site as the location for the present observatory in 1874, in preference to Malmaison , and it was built partly incorporating some of Meudon's exterior stonework. Жюль Янссен выбрал этот сайт в качестве места для настоящей обсерватории в 1874 году, отдавая им предпочтение перед Мальмезон , и он был построен частично включающий некоторые из внешней кладкой MEUDON в. Some of the outbuildings are inhabited today by Некоторые из подсобных помещений заселены сегодня astronomers attached to the Observatoire. Астрономы , прикрепленные к Обсерватории. Its history since that date can be followed at Его история, начиная с этой даты можно проследить на Observatoire de Paris . Обсерватория Париж. ..
http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u= http://wikivisually.com/wiki/Château_de_Meudon

Observatoire de Paris - Wikivisually
http://wikivisually.com/wiki/Observatoire_de_Paris
http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u= http://wikivisually.com/wiki/Observatoire_de_Paris
oio11: (Default)
к постам ---

Болото - «питомник» цивилизации. Андрей Леонов
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4173303.html

Козье Болото - Историческая справка
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4174053.html

Графство Кембриджшир - край сплошных болот и топей...
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/3193544.html

Мами Вата – владычица вод Черного континента
http://beansidhe.org.ua/mami-wata
http://www.satanbaal.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=89&t=3738
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/1909923.html

A Frog Dis - Афродита - Царевна-лягушка - Геката - Орк - Аид - Протей - Прометей - Ктулху...
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/3204691.html

"Подлинная история "бэтмэна"
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4162414.html

Ассоциации:)
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4110035.html

Гностицизм в православной обертке?!
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4115888.html

Православие не христианство ..?!:)
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4143546.html

Чего не рассказывают на уроках истории о Пугачеве
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4147317.html

Why I Am Not a Mythicist, Part II: The Martyred Magician
http://secretsun.blogspot.com/2016/12/why-i-am-not-mythicist-part-ii-martyred.html
http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=secretsun.blogspot.com/2016/12/why-i-am-not-mythicist-part-ii-martyred.html
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4187207.html


Камень на болоте: масоны и Россия
Алексей Широпаев

http://rufabula.com/articles/2015/08/07/masons-and-russia
http://shiropaev.livejournal.com/537814.html
oio11: (Default)
Как культура Нидерландов отразилась на московской архитектуре

Статья из газеты: Еженедельник "Аргументы и Факты" № 19 08/05/2013 Все материалы сюжета Экскурсии по Москве

00:05 08/05/2013 Савелий Кашницкий

http://www.aif.ru/realty/city/43140
oio11: (Default)
Дмитрий Донской и «Бедная Лиза». История Симонова монастыря

12:52 06/09/2013 Александра Мерцалова

http://www.aif.ru/society/history/dmitriy_donskoy_i_bednaya_liza_istoriya_simonova_monastyrya
oio11: (Default)
Геделон — средневековый замок во Франции, который строят сейчас

b_picture
2016-11-20 09:00:00

Guédelon Castle: France’s Brand New Medieval Castle Kaushik Monday, November 07, 2016
http://www.amusingplanet.com/2016/11/guedelon-castle-frances-brand-new.html
http://b_picture.livejournal.com/6939973.html
oio11: (Default)
К­улишки и Разгуляй. Какие названия столичных улиц канули в лету




Грачёвка и «Труба», К­улишки и Разгуляй - мало кто из москвичей скажет, о чём идёт речь. А ведь это улицы и районы столицы...

Read more... )



http://www.aif.ru/realty/city/46805

oio11: (Default)

От Хитровки к Божедомке. Какие таинственные места исчезли с карты столицы




Статья из газеты:
АиФ №46 13/11/2013



«АиФ» продолжает рассказывать о таинственных либо злачных местах столицы, названия которых сохранились лишь в её истории, Read more... )

oio11: (Default)
Церковь св. Ермолая, что на Козьем болоте

Единственная в Москве церковь, освященная во имя Ермолая Священномученика, стояла до революции на Большой Садовой улице

Память именно об этой церкви осталась в старомосковском имени тихого тверского переулочка — Ермолаевского, который, пересекаясь с Малой Бронной, упирается в Патриаршие пруды. В советское время переулок носил имя архитектора И. Жолтовского, создателя пресловутого стиля «сталинского ампира». Обойдем стороной скорбные для Москвы булгаковские места. В этой исконно московской местности немало исторических мест и достопримечательностей. Церковь св. Ермолая появилась здесь еще в 1610 году — ее основал сам патриарх Гермоген как свой моленный храм в Патриаршей слободе, устроенной близ стены Земляного города на «Козьем Болоте». До принятия пострига святитель носил имя Ермолай, и построил в новоустроенной московской Патриаршей слободе храм во имя своего небесного покровителя — иерея Ермолая Никомидийского. ..
http://bolshoevoznesenie.ru/places/9894-cerkov-sv-ermolaya-chto-na-kozem-bolote/
oio11: (Default)
к постам ---

Минотавр. Легенда о минотавре. - Остров Крит
http://krit.info/minotaur.html

Минотавр — Википедия
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Минотавр

Лабиринты
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4116075.html

Куда ведут лабиринты
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4133129.html

Хм!:)
http://ortheos.livejournal.com/1040348.html
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4113409.html

"Медуза Горгона"?!:)
http://ortheos.livejournal.com/1083107.html
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4129495.html

Патриаршьи гномы в рудниках Севера. Антихрист - Маг Вселенной. Путь Отшельника Йоды.
http://dralexmd.livejournal.com/289287.html
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4130491.html

Νάνων ( Nani ) - "деревня гномов" на острове Родос
http://explorers.gr/show.php?action=m&id=71
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/3200464.html


Кто сейчас строит храмы.

Oct. 15th, 2016 at 1:20 AM
ortheos

http://ortheos.livejournal.com/1133269.html
oio11: (Default)
Золотой Мао

6-янв-2016 05:22 pm
dmitry_mako

Для чего «Золотому Мао» вторая голова?


Дайте-ка попробую угадать...


Tags:обратное время

http://dmitry-mako.livejournal.com/70658.html
oio11: (Default)
к постам ---

Алиса уже не та
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org//4103411.html

Religions and Religious Wars / Религии и религиозные войны http://illuminati-news.com/religious-wars.htm
http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=illuminati-news.com/religious-wars.htm

Драконианские культы в Египте и "Царь Скорпион"
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/3667219.html

Богиня глупости - АТО (Уто)-Ата-Геката...А. Голан Миф и символ Из главы “Великая Богиня”
https://oio11.dreamwidth.org/3628256.html

Madonna NeFiLim 2012 (UPDATED 2/7) / Мадонна Nefilim 2012 (ОБНОВЛЕНО 2/7)
http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=secretsun.blogspot.com/2012/02/madonna-nefilim-2012.html http://secretsun.blogspot.com/2012/02/madonna-nefilim-2012.html
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4097550.html

Illuminati symbolism hidden in pop culture... / Иллюминаты символика скрыты в поп-культуре ...
http://illuminatiwatcher.com/columbus-day-and-the-illuminati-goddess-agenda/ http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=http://illuminatiwatcher.com/columbus-day-and-the-illuminati-goddess-agenda/
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4105005.html


Корни Герметического Ордена Золотая Заря / Roots of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn
http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=www.conspiracyarchive.com/2015/07/28/roots-of-the-hermetic-order-of-the-golden-dawn/
http://www.conspiracyarchive.com/2015/07/28/roots-of-the-hermetic-order-of-the-golden-dawn/
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4098059.html

Еще интересных совпадений:)
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4101486.html

Маленькая сакральная тайна религий
http://gorojanin_iz_b.livejournal.com/60831.html

В Киеве , похоже, появилась "прекрасная дама".

Jul. 7th, 2016 at 12:02 AM
ortheos

"На постаменте снесенного памятника Ленину на бульваре Тараса Шевченко в Киеве установили статую Пресвятой Богородицы. Об этом сообщает фонд "Изоляция" в фейсбуке.

"Этакое партизанское произведение современного искусства появилось ночью на постаменте памятника Ленину. Пока мы сидим в социальных сетях, кто-то другой выходит на улицу и решает вопросы публичного пространства за нас. Кто бы не был автором этой скульптуры, он или она намекают нам на то, что время брать инициативу на себя", - сообщили в фонде.

Напомним, мексиканская художница Синтия Гутьеррес создаст на месте памятника Ленину в Киеве инсталляцию "Населяя тени" (Inhabiting Shadows). Ранее фонд "Изоляция" провел конкурс и выбрал ее проект.

Памятник Ленину на бульваре Тараса Шевченко снесли представители "Свободы" 8 декабря 2013 года. Позже активисты хотели установить там статую Богородицы."http://vesti-ukr.com/kiev/156008-na-meste-pamjatnika-leninu-v-kieve-pojavilas-bogorodica

Потом ее сбросили.

http://vesti-ukr.com/kiev/156027-bogorodica-svalilas-s-postamenta-pamjatnika-leninu-v-kieve

Что это сама по себе статуя - совершенный кошмар - никто, думаю, спорить не будет. Меня удивило другое. Во-первых, стилистическое совпадение этой статуи с явлением "Таинственной Розы" в 1947 году. (о нем была уже статья - http://ortheos.livejournal.com/1004177.html)

Но самая жуть - это вот эти непонятные гномы-лепреконы у ног "прекрасной дамы". Которые, разумеется, не имеют никакого отношения к образу Пресвятой Девы. Они даже с католической догматики необъяснимы никак.

Если только мы не вспомним, что "таинственная роза" явилась с двумя маленькими духами в виде детей, которых она представила, как " что это Жасинта и Франсишку." (дети, которые были свидетелями "Фатимского явления") https://traditio.wiki/Дева_Мария_Таинственная_Роза

Кто и зачем поставил эту жуткую статую в центре города - и почему такие странные совпадения - вопрос риторический. ..

http://ortheos.livejournal.com/1030097.html
oio11: (Default)
к постам ---

Снимаю шляпу:))
http://oio11.dreamwidth.org/4102948.html

Оккультизм Диснея: набалдашник и метла / Occult Disney: Bedknobs and Broomsticks Оккультизм Диснея: набалдашник и метла / Occult Disney: Bedknobs and Broomsticks ( Read more... ) http://www.pseudoccultmedia.net/2013/05/occult-disney-bedknobs-and-broomsticks.html https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=http://www.pseudoccultmedia.net/2013/05/occult-disney-bedknobs-and-broomsticks.html

The Controllers of Art by Wes Penre / Контроллеры искусства. Уэс Penre
http://illuminati-news.com/art-and-mc/intro-occult.htm http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=illuminati-news.com/art-and-mc/intro-occult.htm

Pentagon Runs Hollywood - by Wes Penre, March 30, 1999 Пентагон Запускает Голливуд - Уэс Penre, 30 марта 1999
http://illuminati-news.com/art-and-mc/pentagon-runs-hollywood.htm
http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=illuminati-news.com/art-and-mc/pentagon-runs-hollywood.htm

Масонская КИНОИНДУСТРИЯ: Осирис, Оскар и Вавилонская ворота Кристофер Лоринг Ноулз, 20.02.2008 THE MASONIC FILM INDUSTRY: Osiris, The Oscars and The Babylon Gate by Christopher Loring Knowles, Feb 20, 2008 http://illuminati-news.com/Articles/144.html
http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=illuminati-news.com/Articles/144.html

Hollywood's Witching Hour by Jason Kovar/ Колдовской Час Голливуда. Джейсон Ковар
http://www.hollywoodunmasked.com/hollywoodswitchinghour.html
http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=http://www.hollywoodunmasked.com/hollywoodswitchinghour.html

Britain's Next Top Monarch Doll, The Mad Marionette Hatter and Sara Ziff Субботу, 20 Июнь 2009 Великобритании Next Top Монарх Doll, Безумный Шляпник марионеток и Сара Ziff
https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=http://www.pseudoccultmedia.net/2009/06/britains-next-top-monarch-doll-mad.html http://www.pseudoccultmedia.net/2009/06/britains-next-top-monarch-doll-mad.html

Madonna NeFiLim 2012 (UPDATED 2/7) / Мадонна Nefilim 2012 (ОБНОВЛЕНО 2/7) http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=secretsun.blogspot.com/2012/02/madonna-nefilim-2012.html http://secretsun.blogspot.com/2012/02/madonna-nefilim-2012.html

История экранизаций "Алисы"
http://tapirr.livejournal.com/2327792.html
История экранизаций "Алисы" Часть 2
http://tapirr.livejournal.com/2333005.html

Алиса уже не та

"В центре Киева появилась новая огромная скульптура «Алиса», которая стала завершающим объектом в детском арт-пространстве «Алиса в Стране грез». Автором скульптуры стал киевский скульптор Константин Скритуцкий. На создание скульптуры ушло три года, для ней понадобилось две тонны бетона, керамики, мозаики и металла. Создание детского арт-пространства «Алиса в Стране грез» длилось восемь лет. Периодически на нем появлялись все новые сказочные персонажи, на радость детям. И вот наконец появилась главная героиня известного литературного произведения."
П.С. Только мне кажется, что со статуей что то не то?
http://brn88.livejournal.com/197686.html

В центре Киева появилась огромная статуя Алисы (фото) http://politeka.net/226929-v-tsentre-kieva-poyavilas-ogromnaya-statuya-alisy-foto/
oio11: (Default)
Originally posted by [personal profile] gorojanin_iz_b at Египетский морок. Строительство колоссов, Сфинкса, пирамид на заре эры фотографий в 19 веке. Часть 2
Продолжение. Начало в первой части



Самая великая тайна Великой пирамиды Хуфу, он же Хеопс, находится перед глазами у каждого, кто на нее смотрит, но люди не желают видеть ее. Им "древний Египет" с фараонами или анунахами подавай...



Целые участки, полосы и пояса наружного слоя блоков проваливаливаются внутрь. Это видно любому, кто смотрит на пирамиду вблизи, а при боковом свете видно издалали. Объясняется тем, что под слоем отливок-блоков нет миллионов блоков весом миллионы тонн, а находится там обыкновенный, естественным образом проседающий песок. Что отменяет все рассчеты официальных и альтернативных наук о времени, возможностях, технологиях, трудозатратах строителей пирамид. Поставь такую в дождливой местности, полвека бы не стояла, сложилась бы безобразным образом, в том же самом 19 веке, а в Египте - ничего, даже форму держит, правда только издали.

Read more... )

Портрет Тутанхамона, надеюсь, все узнали ))



oio11: (Default)
Originally posted by [personal profile] gorojanin_iz_b at Египетский морок. Строительство колоссов, Сфинкса, пирамид на заре эры фотографий в 19 веке. Часть 1

Ученые, официальные-академические и альтернативные-конспирологические, пишут, что это высечено из цельной скалы, из камня.

Древнейшая, мол, статуя на земле, свидетель потопа, загадка тысячелетий... Хватить врать-то, блин, уже. Литье как литье. Как и вся "историческая древность".


Read more... )

Продолжение о пирамидах и не только - во второй части поста
oio11: (Default)
Russian Art
History of Icon Painting, Mosaics, Goldsmithing and Architecture.
MAIN A-Z INDEX - A-Z of ART MOVEMENTS
http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-art/russian-art.htm
https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-art/russian-art.htm



Saint Basil's Cathedral (1555-61)
Red Square, Moscow.
Founded by Ivan the Terrible, it is
one of the most famous examples of
Russian architecture.


The Zaporozhian Cossacks write a letter
to the Sultan of Turkey (1891) (detail)
State Russian Museum
By Ilya Repin.

Russian Art (c.22,000 BCE - 1920)

Contents

Oldest Russian Art
Bronze and Iron Age Russian Art
Byzantine Russian Art
Art Under the Mongols
Muscovite Art
Icon Painting
Parsunas: Non-Religious Portraiture
Russian Art in the 18th Century
Russian Art in the 19th Century
- History Painting
- Religious Painting
- Landscape Art
- Still Lifes
- Genre Painting
- The Itinerant Painters
Modern Russian Art - 1890s Onward
Russian Realist Art
Russian Abstract Art
Russian Museums

• For a list of the greatest painters and sculptors from Russia,
please see: Russian Artists.



Maikop Gold Bull (c.2,500 BCE)
Beautiful Russian goldsmithery
from the Black Sea Bronze Age.
For more modern Russian statues,
reliefs and other 3-D objects, see:
Russian Sculpture(c.1740-1940).

EVOLUTION OF VISUAL ART
For details of art movements
and styles, see:History of Art.
For the chronology and dates
of key events in the evolution
of visual arts around the world
see: History of Art Timeline.

WORLD'S GREATEST ARTWORKS
For a list of the Top 10 painters/
sculptors: Best Artists of All Time.
For the best oils/watercolours,
see: Greatest Paintings Ever.

Oldest Russian Art
Fine art in Russia dates back to the Stone Age. The earliest known work of Russian/Ukrainian art is the Venus of Kostenky (c.23,000-22,000 BCE), a mammoth bone carving of a female figure, discovered in Kostenky (Kostienki), dating from the Gravettian culture. A similar piece of prehistoric sculpture, carved out of limestone rock was discovered at the same site. Other items of Russianprehistoric art from the Gravettian era include the Venus of Gagarino (c.20,000 BCE), the Avdeevo Venuses(c.20,000 BCE), and an ivory carving known as the Mal'ta Venuses (20,000 BCE) from near Lake Baikal in Siberia. Magdalenian era art in Russia is exemplified by theKapova Cave Paintings in the Shulgan-Tash Preserve, Bashkortostan, in the southern Urals and also by Amur River Basin Pottery (14,300 BCE).

Bronze and Iron Age Russian Art
Almost two thousand years before the Ancient Greeks stunned the civilized world with their architecture, marble statues, pottery, science and democracy, and roughly the same time that British and Irish tribesmen were building their megaliths at Newgrange and Stonehenge (see alsomegalithic art), Russian goldsmiths and silversmiths in the Caucasus region were creating exquisite metalwork in a variety of precious metals. This Iron Age art is exemplified by the famous Gold Bull of Maikop (2,500 BCE, Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg), which was discovered by archeologists in 1897 near the northern edge of the Caucasus mountains. Standing roughly 3 inches high, and made of gold using the lost-wax process, it was excavated from what was believed to be a royal burial chamber. The gold bull and its twin, together with two silver bulls, made up a quartet of animal sculptures which decorated the four supports of a bed canopy. The bull is carefully ornamented with incised concentric circles between its curved horns, as well as lines highlighting the eyes, nose, mouth, hooves and tail. Art historians believe that the Caucasus obtained its artistic know-how and traditions from Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), probably via Lebanon and the maritime trade route into the Black Sea. Fifteen centuries later, that is around 1000 BCE, the Caucasus and Steppes of southern Russia gave birth to the first of several tribal migrations of Celts into eastern and central Europe. Metalworking was a Celtic specialty, although being a practical, semi-nomadic people, they preferred working in iron rather than gold or silver. Indeed it was largely because of the high quality weaponry produced by their blacksmiths, that the Celts managed to establish themselves on the European continent.
Byzantine Russian Art
It was in Russia that the influence of Byzantine art was most enduring; Russia never had a Romanesque or a Gothic phase, nor any comprehensive renaissance as there was in most European countries. Byzantine art remained almost unchanged in Russia, in spite of wars, racial migrations, and almost two centuries of Mongol rule, until, under the Muscovite Czars, in the fifteenth century, it acquired a more national character. Even when Peter the Great, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, undertook the Europeanization of Russia, a Baroque style emerged, in which monasteries and churches kept many Byzantine elements, such as the clusters of domes and the towers with pyramidal roofs, which Russian art, hundreds of years earlier, had adopted, reproducing the native wooden architecture in stone.
Following the decline and fall of Rome in about 450 CE, the centre of Christianity shifted to Byzantium(Constantinople) in present-day Turkey. This Eastern Orthodox Church, as it was known, became the next great patron and sponsor of the arts. When, in 988, Prince Vladimir of Kiev adopted Christianity for himself and his subjects, he too began employing Byzantine architects to build his churches, and artists to endow them with magnificent fresco paintings and mosaic art. One of the oldest and finest is the cathedral of St Sophia in Kiev, planned by St Vladimir and built, between 1020 and 1037, by his son Jaroslav. The cathedral was reconstructed in the style of the Ukrainian baroque, and does not now convey much idea of the original plan, with its five naves. It never, of course, competed with the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople; but with its shallow main cupola, and other secondary cupolas, and its two flanking towers at the west front, it was at that time the finest and richest church built in Russia under Byzantine influence. Most churches were made of wood, which made fresco painting impractical. So instead, religious images were painted on wooden panels (icons), which were typically displayed on a screen separating the sanctuary from the body of the church. This screen, a feature of Byzantine art, eventually evolved into the iconostasis, an elaborate partition adorned withicons. One of the most famous surviving examples of this early form of icon art, is The Virgin of Vladimir (c.1100), now in the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. (For more about Icons, see below.)
At first, Russian medieval painting followed closely all the developments of the Byzantine. The representations of the Last Supper, for instance, in the conventual church ofSt Michael in Kiev, finished in 1108, have the same over-elongated figures, with small faces, that are characteristic of Byzantine art at the same period. In the frescoes in themonastery of St Cyril, near Kiev, founded in 1140, the first Slavonic faces appear. Purely Russian elements appear more obviously in the miniature-painting of the period, as soon as it ceased to be practised exclusively by Greeks. There are clear differences; lifelike animal and plant motifs appear together with conventionalized Byzantine faces, and bright reds and blues - always favourite colours of the Russians - emphasize the national character of thesemanuscript illuminations, which lasted into the thirteenth century. The oldest which can be called truly Russian is the Ostromir Gospel of 1057, but for the time being there was no continued elaboration of a Russian style, for after 1054 the kingdom of Kiev had split up into various independent, and often hostile, principalities.
Art Under the Mongol Khans
In 1222 the Mongols, under Genghis Khan, seized the Crimea in the south; and in 1237 the Tartars entered into northern Russia, capturing and destroying the cities of Ajasan, Vladimir, Kolomna and Moscow. In 1240 Chernigov and Kiev were taken, and by 1242 Russia had become part of the Mongol empire of the Golden Horde. The Khan of Kipchak, from his capital, Sarai, on a tributary of the Volga, ruled his Russian dominions as a despot. Under this Asiatic rule Russian art was affected by many influences, not, as before, only that of Byzantium. In the great Mongol empire, which, in the second half of the thirteenth century, stretched from the China Sea to the frontiers of Poland, and from the Himalayas to Siberia, the eastern Mongols had accepted Buddhism, and the western Mongols Islam, so that a current of Chinese, Indian and Islamic-Persian art flowed into Russia. Islamic architecture, as the next chapter shows, had taken at about this time - especially in Persia - the sensuous forms which suit the Russian temperament. Four-centred arches, onion-shaped and heart-shaped domes, blind windows, and niche-like recesses, now occurred frequently in Russian architecture, and the new, bright colouring of roofs and cupolas can also be attributed to Asiatic influences. The numerous spires of the churches shone with red, white and green, and there was an increasing tendency to cover them with gold. In cities like Rostov, which were flourishing centres in the time of the Mongols, the Tartar 'Kremlin', or fortified citadel, appeared, and when the Muscovite Grand Duke, Ivan I, moved his capital to Moscow, and in 1333 was confirmed in his dignities by the Great Khan, the first stone-built churches were built in the city, which always, even during the period of Mongol overlordship, tried to surpass all other Russian centres. The Metropolitan now moved his seat to Russia, and the Grand Ducal power established itself so firmly that in 1480 Ivan III was able to free all Russia from the Tartar yoke.
Muscovite Art
In 1453 the Ottomans, under Mahommed II, besiegedConstantinople with a great army and a powerful fleet, and in forty days reduced the ancient city, massacred its dignitaries, and made it the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Only in the monasteries of Mount Athos, on the easternmost of the three prongs of the Chalcidician peninsula, in northern Greece, did Byzantine art feebly continue in the hands of Greek and Russian monks. Otherwise, the Byzantine inheritance fell to Russia.
By his marriage to the Princess Sophia, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, who had taken refuge in Rome,Ivan III formed contacts with Byzantium and Europe. It was he who added the two-headed eagle, the badge of the Greek emperors, to St George of Moscow, and styled himself Grand Duke and Autocrat of all Russia. Under him, and his son Ivan the Terrible (Ivan IV), a new Russian empire was created, and with it a national art.
Ivan IV, who in imitation of Caesar was crowned as 'Czar', regarded himself as the rightful heir of the Roman and the Byzantine empires. The clergy at once invented an ideology which placed the Czars of Moscow at the head of the new world state: all Orthodox countries were to unite in a single Russian czardom, and the Czar would be the only Christian emperor on earth. No fourth Rome could follow the third, but only the kingdom of Christ, which was eternal. In the legend of Constantine Monomach, who had separated the Orthodox from the Roman church, the majesty of the title of Czar was constantly repeated. Wearing the Hat and Pallium of Monomach, and dressed in brocade and covered with gold, the Czar sits immovably on his throne. Ivan IV was 'Terrible' only to the unorthodox peoples; for the Orthodox Russians he was the stern and god-fearing ruler. Religion became, as it had been in Byzantium, a powerful factor in political life; richly endowed stone-built churches and cathedrals were built in all parts of the country. When the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin, which had just been begun by inexperienced native architects, collapsed, the autocrat summoned the ItalianAristotile Fioraventi from Venice, who built the cathedral, in the years 1475-79, on the lines of the old cathedral of St Demetrius of Vladimir. He gave it, as a foretaste of the new Russian style, five shining onion-shaped domes (the so-called 'imperial roofs') with gilded spires and crosses with chains, while the interior was decorated in the Italian style. He was soon followed by other Italians, among whom were Pietro Antonio Solari,Alevisio Novi and Marco Rufo. Between 1484-1507 they built, at the highest point of the Kremlin, the Cathedral of the Annunciation, while Marco Rufo, about 1487, began the so-called 'Faceted Palace', as the chief residence of Ivan IV. In this way the crystalline fashion of cutting and polishing masonry, known as faceting, first practised in the early Renaissance, was introduced in Russia. In Moscow, in so far as the Italians could influence it, there was a Byzantine Italian renaissance; but in spite of this the interiors of the churches remained in the Russo-Byzantine style, as in the third great cathedral of the Kremlin, that of the Archangel Michael. The well-knownPokrovsky Cathedral (Vasili Blazhenny), at the lower end of the Red Square, was designed by Barma and Postnik. It is not really typical of its period, for such fantastic complexity is an exception; too many things have been crowded in, to produce an effect of the greatest possible magnificence, and no less than eleven chapels are clustered in a disorderly way under the turrets. The only fundamental features of Russian art are the division of the many internal compartments into two storeys, and the replacement of the original wooden gable-roof by pyramidal roofs of stone. Even in the days of purely Byzantine art these abstract forms had proved entirely in accordance with its spirit.
Icon Painting
A characteristic type of Russian Christian art, the Icon was originally derived from Byzantine mosaics, frescoes andminiatures. The desire to preserve popular legends in permanent form resulted, in Russia, in its development from the Greek image (eikon), and from the icon was developed an original Russian form, the painted screen oriconostasis, which was established everywhere by the fifteenth century. It became the chief ornament of the Orthodox church, assuming the function of the altar-rail, or of the curtain in an Oriental church. Like the prosceniumof the Greek theatre, the iconostasis has three doors; through the centre one only priests may go. It divided the holy of holies from the faithful, in much the same way as the rood-screen in the Western church; but it played a much bigger part in the liturgy, and each individual painting on it had a definite meaning.
The icon-painters were anonymous monks, whose work, accompanied by prayer and fasting, was itself a form of worship. With great care they prepared their panels of birch, pine or lime-wood, or more rarely, of cypress, scraping a flat surface in the centre, so that the protruding outside edges made a protective frame. The surface was primed with chalk and size, and the colours were mixed with egg yolk in the technique of tempera painting. Strict rules regulated the palette; in early icons the background was gold or silver, but later, white, green and blue were added. As a preservative, the painting was coated with white of egg, which has an unfortunate tendency to darken.
The finest icons came from the Novgorod School of icon painting, which escaped the troubles of Mongol rule. When Prince Andrei Bogoljubski besieged the city in 1198 an icon was carried round the walls, and when the image of the Mother of God was pierced by enemy arrows she began to weep; this incident is the subject of the Holy Virgin of Vladimir (c.1131) one of the finest of the many splendid icons in the Novgorod museum. Probably the three greatest Russian icon painters - all trained in the Novgorod tradition of icon painting - are: Theophanes the Greek (c.1340-1410), Andrei Rublev (c.1360-1430) - see his masterpiece the Holy Trinity Icon (1411) painted for the Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius, now in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow - and Dionysius (c.1440-1502). After the Novgorod school, attention shifted to the Moscow school of painting represented by the likes of Procopius Chirin, Nicephorus Savin, and Simon Ushakov (1626-1686). For more about Byzantine-style iconography, see: Icons: Icon Painting.
Parsunas: Non-Religious Portraiture
Up until the mid-16th century, icon-painters confined their imagery to figures from the Old and New Testaments - notably, Christ, the Virgin Mary, Saints, Apostles and Angels. Then in 1551 Tzar Ivan the Terrible called aStoglav (religious council), which approved the inclusion of Tzars, as well as legendary or historical figures, within the pantheon of permitted images. As a result, icon-painting widened its scope considerably. A century later, this issue triggered a major schism in the Russian Orthodox Church, but by then the concept of non-religious painting was well established, and painters simply moved onto portraiture, leading to a vogue for Parsunas (from the Latin word persona) - pictures of people similar to icons, but of a non-religious nature. Typically painted on wooden panels, rather than canvas - their emphasis was not on the sitter's character but rather his place/rank in society. An example is the Portrait of Jacob Turgenev* (before 1696, Russian Museum, St Petersburg) by an unknown artist. [*Peter the Great's jester]
Russian Art in the 18th Century
To help him build/decorate his new capital St Petersburg,Peter the Great lured many architects and sculptors to Russia during the era of Petrine art, such as and also paid for many Russian artists to acquire the necessary skills in foreign Arts Academies. (Others came to Russia of their own accord, like the Italian architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1700-71) and Charles Cameron (c.1745–1812). His intention was to set up a special art department in the newly established Academy of Sciences, but death intervened. However in 1757, his successor completed his plan by founding the Russian Imperial Academy of the Arts.
Russian painting of the 18th century was dominated byportrait art, one of the few painting genres that made money, and also various forms of folk art. Famous Russian portraitists of the time include: the Italian-trained Ivan Nikitin (1688-1742); the Dutch Realist-trained Andrei Maveyev (1701-39); the formal Alexei Antropov (1716-95); the more decorative, rococo-style Ivan Vishnyakov(1699-1761); the full-blown rococo painter Dmitri Levitsky (1735-1822) - see his awesome Portrait of Ursula Mniszech (1782, Tretyakov Gallery Moscow); Ivan Argunov (1727-1802) patronized by the powerful Count Sheremetyev; the Russian Gainsborough Vladimir Borovikovsky (1757-1825); and the court painter andsfumato expert Fyodor Rokotov (1735-1808).
Russian Art in the 19th Century
Russian painting of the nineteenth century was strongly influenced by European Romanticism, as exemplified by the romantic portraiture of Orest Kiprensky (1782-1836) - see his Portrait of Alexander Pushkin (1827). Another important figure was Vasily Tropinin (1776-1857), a serf until he was 47, who produced celebrity portraits as well as exquisite genre-paintings - see Lacemaker (1823, Tretyakov Gallery) - becoming a full member of the Academy of Arts in 1824. The realism of Alexei Venetsianov (1780-1847) represented an important step in the evolution of Russian painting. After beginning as a portraitist he turned more and more to genre-painting. Among his contemporaries, the most fashionable portrait painter was the Italian-trained romantic Carl Bryulov(1799-1852) - see Italian Midday (1827, Russian Museum, St Petersburg).
History Painting
Russian history painting (named after the Italian "istoria" meaning story or narrative) was closely linked to religious painting and only broke away from the canons of icon-painting around 1700. However, it didn't come to prominence until the formation of the Academy of Arts, after which it was regarded as the leading painting genre. Early styles were classical in nature, due to the Academy's extreme reverence for classicism. An excellent example is Briullov's The Last Day of Pompeii (1830-33, Russian Museum, Petersburg) which won the Grand Prix at the Paris Salon. Two other noted history painters were Fyodor Bruni (1799-1875) and Vasily Timm (1820-95).
Religious Painting
Although Russian art had broadened considerably during the 18th century, the Church remained a major patron of the arts, and religious painting was still an important source of influence and revenue. Russian painters who produced major religious (and historical) works, included: the Ukrainian Anton Losenko (1737-73) who became Professor of History Painting at the Academy; and the highly influential Alexander Ivanov (1806-58), whose works included The Appearance of Christ to the People(1837-57, Tretyakov Gallery) a gigantic picture which took 20 years to complete.
Landscape Art
Authentic Russian landscape painting didn't take off until the early part of the 19th century. Although before this, many artists - including Fyodor Alexeyev (1753-1824),Fyodor Matveyev (1758-1826), Maxim Vorobiev (1787-1855) and Silvester Shchedrin (1791-1830) - had produced a number of masterpieces of landscape painting - these works were very heavily influenced by the Italianate pictures of Lorrain Claude, Poussin and Canaletto. It wasn't until works by Alexei Venetsianov (1780–1847) and followers such as Nikifor Krylov (1802-31) and Grigory Soroka (1823-64), that the real Russian landscape appeared. Meantime, the Italianesque romantic tradition was maintained by Mikhail Lebedev (1811-37) and Ivan Aivazovsky (1817-1900).
The architecture and streets of Russia were also gaining admirers. Andrei Martynov (1768-1826) and Stepan Galaktionov (1778-1854) were dubbed "the poets of St Petersburg" for their atmospheric views of the city's avenues, houses, gardens and quays.
Still Lifes
Still life emerged as an independent genre in Russia from around 1850. Its finest exponent was Ivan Khrutsky(1810-85), who was greatly influenced by the Dutch Realist masters in the Hermitage Museum. Other still life artists were Kapiton Zelentsov (1790-1845), Alexei Tyranov(1808-59), and Count Fyodor Tolstoy (1783-1873), who excelled at pen-and-ink dawings and gouache miniatures.
Genre Painting
The Academy's interest in peasant life helped to propelgenre-painting onto the curriculum from the 1770s onward. Talented Russian genre painters of the late 18th and early 19th century included: the Russian landscape pioneer Alexei Venetsianov (1780–1847), Yevgraf Krendovsky (1810-53), IA Ermenev (c.1746-1791), and the astute social commentator Pavel Fedotov (1815-52).
Itinerant Painters
A minor revolt by some of Russia's most talented art students against the conservatism of the Imperial Academy of Arts in 1863, led to the formation of the Society for Itinerant Art Exhibitions. Seeking to reach out to a wider audience, members of the society (known asperedvizhniki, itinerants, or wanderers) travelled around Russia preaching social/political reform and holding art exhibitions of works completed en route. Leading artists included the genius portraitist and genre-painter Ivan Kramskoy (1837–1887); the stylistically quieter Vasily Perov (1834–1882); the outrageously talented portrait/landscape/genre and history painter Ilya Repin(1844-1930), and the equally stunning history painterVasily Surikov (1848-1916) - see Repin's Religious Procession in Kursk Province (1883, Tretyakov Gallery) and Surikov's The Morning of the Execution of the Streltsy(1881, Tretyakov Gallery). Other Wanderers includedNikolai Gay (1831–1894) and Grigory Miasoyedov(1834–1911).
Many of the Itinerant artists - like Kramskoy, Repin, Polenov and Nikolai Gay (1831–1894) - also painted religious pictures, and did so with a new realism and emotional intensity. Landscape was also a major part of the Itinerants' agenda. Among its greatest exponents were:Feodor Vasilyev (1850–1873); Ivan Shishkin (1832-98) dubbed the "Tsar of the forest" - see his magnificent Oak Grove (1887, Museum of Russian Art, Kiev); the traditional and religious landscape painter Vasily Polenov (1844-1927), the luminous landscape painters Arkhip Kuindzhi(1842-1910) and Nikolai Dubovskoy (1859-1918); and the light/colour expert Isaac Levitan (1860-1900) - see his Secluded Monastery (1890, Tretyakov Gallery).
Meantime, itinerant genre painters include Vasily Pukirev(1832-90), Grigory Miasoyedov (1834–1911), Vasily Maximov (1844-1911), Konstantin Savitsky (1844-1905) - see his extraordinary work Repairing the Railway(1874, Tretyakov Gallery), Vladimir Makovsky (1846-1920).

Tribute to Ilya Repin
An intimate of the writer Leo Tolstoy, Repin was a supreme exponent of all the painting genres including still life. His history paintings were both innovative and evocative - witness the unforgettable 'bulging eyes' of Czarevna Sophia(1879, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow), during her imprisonment in the New Maiden Convent in 1698, and his extraordinary portrait of Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan on 16 November 1581(1885, Tretyakov) capturing the moment just after the Czar had killed his son in a fit of rage. Repin's other masterpieces include the religious work The Raising of Jairus's Daughter (1871, Russian Museum, St Petersburg), and his genre paintings like Religious Procession in Kursk Province (1880-3, Tretyakov) and They Did Not Expect Him (1884-88, Tretyakov). Repin's talents, along with those of his contemporaries like Ivan Kramskoy (1837-87) and Nikolai Gay (1831-94), helped to turn the 19th century into a mini-Renaissance of Russian art.

Modern Russian Art - 1890s Onward
The Art Scene
From 1890 to 1917, Russian art entered a period of both turmoil and creativity. Just as it was becoming really established The Society for Itinerant Exhibitions began to fall apart because of internal dissension. A host of new societies emerged, including the World of Art - founded in 1899 by a group of artists and writers including Alexander Benois, Konstantin Somov, Leon Bakst, Yevgeny Lanceray and Sergei Diaghilev. Much of its subsequent success was due to the remarkable promotional talents of Diaghilev. A rival group, set up in 1903, was the Union of Russian Artists. Other groups included: the Blue Rose, which launched its own magazine The Golden Fleece. Golden Fleece-organized exhibitions in 1908 and 1909 were renowned for the participation of several major French artists. Yet another group, the Knave of Diamonds, staged an important show in 1910, while two Russian avant garde painters - Mikhail Larionov (1881-1964) andNatalia Goncharova (1881-1962) staged seminal exhibitions like: the Donkey's Tail (1912), Target (1913) and No 4 - Futurists, Rayonists, Primitives.
Russian Realist Art
Although the arrival of abstract painting in the late 1900s caused something of a stir, as it did everywhere, the vast majority of Russian painters during the period 1890-1917 were naturalistic. The former-Itinerant, now World of Art member Valentin Serov (1865-1911) was a brilliant semi-Impressionist portraitist - see his Girl with Peaches (1887, Tretyakov), In Summer (1895, Russian Museum, St Petersburg), Portrait of Isaac Levitan (1893, Tretyakov), and Portrait of Ida Rubinstein (1910,, Russian Museum, St Petersburg). Other Impressionist-style portrait artists included the great Mikhail Vrubel (1856–1910) andKonstantin Korovin (1861-1939), while Alexander Golovin (1863-1930), Leon Bakst (1866–1924),Konstantin Somov (1869-1939) and Zinaida Serebriakova (1884-1967) were more classical.
Note: Many of the Russian painters of the late 19th century, like Repin, Serov, Vrubel and many others, were indebted to the generosity of Savva Mamontov (1841-1918) and the facilities at his Abramtsevo estate.
Still life, a genre which fitted well with the decorative and aesthetic philosophy of the World of Art movement, was also popular. Under the influence of post-Impressionists, works became more colourful. Russian still life painters included: Igor Grabar (1871-1960) and Boris Kustodiev(1878–1927), Alexander Kuprin (1880-1960), Yotr Konchalovsky (1876-1956), Ilya Mashkov (1881-1944),Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin (1878-1939) and the ArmenianMartiros Saryan (1880-1972).
Russian landscape art was also energized by French Impressionism, notably its plein-air painting techniques. Of those artists already mentioned Valentin Serov and Igor Grabar were consummate landscapists, as was Vasily Surikov. Others included Vasily Baksheyev (1862-1958), as well as Union of Russian Artists members Konstantin Yuon (1875-1958) and Nikolai Krymov (1884-1958).Marc Chagall (1887–1985) produced his own views of the "shtetl" - see View from the Window, Vitebsk (1914, Tretyakov).
Rural genre paintings were especially powerful ways of depicting the life of the people. The genre was exemplified by Russian artists like Abram Arkhipov (1862-1930) - see his awesome colourist work Visiting (1915, Russian Museum, St Petersburg); Sergei Ivanov (1864-1910) - see his evocative On the Road: The Death of a Migrant Peasant (1889, Tretyakov); Nikolai Kasatkin (1859-1930) - see his memorable Poor People Collecting Coal in an Abandoned Pit (1894, Russian Museum, St Petersburg).
Expressionism was mainly practised abroad. Leadingexpressionist painters from Russia included: Alexei von Jawlensky (1864-1941) and Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944).
Paris Oct 1906: "Two Centuries of Russian Painting and Sculpture"
The year 1906 was a landmark in the history of Russian art thanks to the irrepressible Sergei Diaghilev, the promoter of the giant exhibition of Russian painting at the Autumn Salon in Paris. An impressario with endless energy, Diaghilev turned to Paris to escape the confines of St. Petersburg. His Russian backers, all of them art collectors, included Vladimir Argutinsky-Dolgorukov, Sergei Botkin, Vladimir Girshman, Vladimir von Mekk and also Ivan Morozov, who loaned paintings from his vast collection for the massive Russian retrospective comprising almost 750 works. The exhibition - entitled, Two Centuries of Russian Painting and Sculpture - which opened in October 1906, occupied twelve halls of the Grand Palais of the Champs-Elysee. The interior designs were by Lev Bakst (1866-1924), Diaghilev's most influential artist. Visitors were stunned by the ancient icons laid out on gleaming golden brocades, and by paintings from the Petrine era of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great. Other highlights included portraits by Borovikovsky, Brullov, Kiprensky and Levitsky. But the real point of the show was to showcase modern Russian art by the likes of Isaac Levitan, Valentin Serov, Mikhail Vrubel, Konstantin Somov, Lev Bakst, Philip Maliavin, Nikolai Roerich and Konstantin Yuon. In 1909, Diaghilev - in collaboration with his set designers Leon Bakst and Alexander Benois - launched his most famous venture, the Ballets Russes (c.1909-29), which took Europe and the Americas by storm.
20th Century Russian Abstract Art
A number of abstract and semi-abstract movements sprang up in the second decade of the 20th century. All influenced in varying degrees by avant garde ideas coming out of Paris and, to a much lesser extent Milan, they included Russian Futurism (c.1912-14) started by David Burlyuk (1882-1967), later joined by Vladimir Mayakovsky (1893-1930), Velimir Khlebnikov andAlexei Kruchenykh (1886-1968); Rayonism (1912-15) invented by Mikhail Larionov and his partner Natalia Goncharova (1881-1962); Constructivism initiated byVladimir Tatlin (1885-1953) - see his extraordinary workMonument to the Third International (1919, Pompidou Centre Paris) - and practised by the painter and photographer Aleksandr Rodchenko (1891-1956),Lyubov Popova (1889-1924), the painter and illustratorEl Lissitzky (1890-1941) and Konstantin Medunetsky(1899-1935); and Suprematism (c.1915-1921) founded byKasimir Malevich (1878-1935).
The Russian Revolution 1917
All the above art movements were driven by Utopian ideas, and placed enormous faith in the liberating power of science and technology. As it was, science's first act was to slaughter millions of men in World War I, which triggered the Russian Revolution. Suddenly artistic expression was a political matter, controlled by the Bolshevik Institute of Artistic Culture INKHUK (Institut Khudozhestvennoi Kulturi). Within a couple of years, INKHUK banned easel art and obliged painters and sculptors to switch to industrial designwork. This caused many artists to leave Russia. These emigrants included the expressionists Alexei von Jawlensky, Wassily Kandinsky, Marc Chagall andChaim Soutine (1893-1953), the sculptors Alexander Archipenko (1887-1964), Ossip Zadkine (1890-1967), the brothers Antoine Pevsner (1886-1962) and Naum Gabo (1890–1977), the Cubist Jacques Lipchitz (1891-1973), and many others.
After a decade of political argument (1922-32), during which time many 20th century painters and sculptors in Russia abandoned fine art in favour of applied art and design work, Stalin closed down all surviving art groups and decreed the compulsory application of Socialist Realism - a naturalistic style designed to exalt the Soviet worker and his over-fulfillment of the government's 5-Year Plans.
Russian Art Museums
The best art museums in Russia include:

The State Hermitage Museum: Saint Petersburg
One of the world's largest art museums, its collection holds over 3 million items arranged in six buildings, including the Winter Palace. Highlights of the Hermitage include the Fabergé collection of jewellery art and goldsmithery - for photographs, see Fabergé Easter Eggs - gold artifacts from Eastern Europe and Western Asia, Old Master paintings, and Modern Art. The Hermitage collection now contains works from the art collections previously owned by Sergei Shchukin (1854-1936) and Ivan Morozov (1871-1921).

Phone: (812) 571-34-65, 571-84-46, 710-90-79
Address: 190000, Saint-Petersburg, 34-36, Dvortsovaya Nabarezhnaya

The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts
The brainchild of Ivan Vladimirovich Tsvetaev, its current collection features works of European painting and sculpture by Impressionist and Post-Impressionist artists. Includes part of the nationalized collections assembled by Sergei Shchukin (1854-1936) and Ivan Morozov (1871-1921).

Phone: (495) 697-79-98, 697-95-78
Address: 121019, Moscow, Volkchonka, 12

The State Tretyakov Gallery: Moscow
Founded by Pavel Tretyakov in 1874, the museum holds the world's finest collections of 17th and 18th century Russian icons, as well as an extensive collection of pre-Revolutionary Russian art.

Phone: 8 (499) 230-7788, 238-1378, (495) 951-1362
Address: 109017, Moscow, 10, Lavrushinskii Peryulok

The State Historical Museum
Phone: (495) 692-06-68 ; 692-37-31
Address: 109012, Moscow, 1/2, Red Square

The Vladimir and Suzdal Historical, Architectural and Art Museum
Phone: (4922) 32-42-63, 42-11-84.
Address: 600000, Vladimir region, 43, Bolshaya Moskovskaya st, Vladimir.

For details of European collections containing works by Russian painters and sculptors, see: Art Museums in Europe.
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Eugène Viollet-le-Duc — Wikipédia

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Виолле-ле-Дюк, Эжен — Википедия
Эжен Эммануэль Виолле-ле-Дюк (фр. Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, 27 января 181417 сентября 1879) — французский архитектор, реставратор, искусствовед и историк архитектуры, идеолог неоготики, основоположник архитектурной реставрации. ..
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European Architecture Series
Eugene Viollet-le-Duc

Biography of French Architect, Noted for Medieval Restorations.
MAIN A-Z INDEX - A-Z of ARCHITECTURE



Photograph of Fortifications at
Carcassonne. See the slate-covered
conical roofs which were added to
the towers by Viollet-le-Duc during
restorations in the 1850s.

Eugene Viollet-le-Duc (1814-79)

Contents

Viollet-le-Duc's Architecture
Biography
Restorations by Viollet-le-Duc
Building Designs
Writings
Other 19th Century Architects



One of the many grotesques on the
facade of the Notre Dame Cathedral
in Paris, which were added during
Viollet-le-Duc's restoration.


ARCHITECTURAL TERMS
For a short guide, see:
Architecture Glossary.

Viollet-le-Duc's Architecture
One of the greatest architects of the 19th century, the unconventional designer, theorist and writer Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc is best known for his restorations of Romanesque architecture (Basilique Sainte-Marie-Madeleine, Vezelay) and Gothic architecture (Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris). Well educated in France and Italy, when he was only 24 he was given the important task, of restoring La Madeleine at Vezelay Abbey, an undertaking soon followed by restoration work in Sainte Chapelle(1241-48) and Notre Dame in Paris, the cathedral of Narbonne and St Denis. In 1853 he was made Inspector General of Diocesan Monuments and began work on his most important restoration, the historical city of Carcassonne. In this he followed two ideas, the desire to bring to light the authentic monument, and the conviction that the aesthetic value ofmedieval art, and most especially Gothic art, is a matter of its technical value and its architectural creativity. Some of his restoration work closely followed the work of medieval artists, as catalogued in his treatiseConversations on Architecture (1858-72); but he is more noted for combining historical fact with creative modification in order to create the perfect "medieval-style" building. He was the most prominent exponent of the Gothic Revival movement in France, thus going against the prevailing academic classicism - the Beaux-Arts style, which combined Renaissancewith Baroque architecture - and he saw French Gothic as the model for a national style, emphasizing its constructional rationalism and, in so doing, for the first time formulating the equation between aesthetics and technique that would be fundamental to modern architecture of the 20th century. His other designs included the interior of the Statue of Liberty(1886), sculpted by Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904). Today, Viollet-le-Duc is regarded as one of the most influential figures ofnineteenth century architecture, who had a major impact on the development of contemporary styles of Victorian architecture as well as 20th century design in Europe and America.
Note: For more details about 19th century Gothic Revival please see: English Gothic architecture.
Biography
Born in Paris, into a well-educated and well-connected family (his father was a civil servant, his mother hosted a weekly Salon attended by the writer Stendhal [1783-1842] and other luminaries), Viollet-le-Duc had a rebellious, unconventional temperament and - having decided on a career as an architect - refused to attend the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Instead he joined the architectural offices of Achille Leclere as a pupil in order to acquire direct experience of his chosen profession. He also took a number of trips around France, in order to study monuments from the French Middle Ages, along with Romanesque and Gothic art.
In 1836 he went to Italy to study Renaissance architecture from both thetrecento and quattrocento, but on his return he was again drawn to his preferred French Gothic. He trained under the medieval archeologist Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus (1807-57), while helping him with the restoration of the Church of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois (1838).
Restorations by Viollet-le-Duc
In 1839, the medievalist and Minister of Historical Monuments, Prosper Merimee (1803-70), a family friend, gave Viollet-le-Duc the prestigious commission of restoring the abbey church of La Madeleine (1840), at Vezelay. This was followed by the restoration of the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris (1840) - a project he completed in collaboration with Jacques Felix Duban (1798-1870). After this, in 1845, he and Lassus were commissioned to restore the Gothic Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, for which they were to design a new Gothic-style sacristy. Art critics hailed this appointment as constituting official sanction for the Gothic Revival style in France. Another of Viollet-le-Duc's important projects was to restore the abbey church of Saint-Denis (1846).
In 1848 - having established himself as an active and influential figure in the Ministry of Historical Monuments - he was appointed Inspector General of Diocesan Monuments, responsible for the archeological restoration of numerous medieval buildings, including the Synod Hall at Sens (1849), Amiens Cathedral (1849), the fortifications of the southern city of Carcassonne (1852), and Saint-Sernin, Toulouse (1862).
His other famous architectural restorations included: the 12th century Chateau de Pierrefronds (1858-85) in Oise (uncompleted at his death); Chateau de Vincennes (1860) Paris; Chateau de Roquetaillade (1850-70) near Bordeaux; Lausanne Cathedral (1874) Switzerland; and Chateau de Coucy (1875) Aisne.
As noted above, although Viollet-le-Duc initially executed his restorations in the original style of the building concerned, he soon began to add completely new elements of his own. While restoring Notre Dame Cathedral, for instance, he added a third tower, and to the fortified wall towers of Carcassonne he added a new set of pointed conical roofs, derived from the architecture of northern France. These tactics were heavily criticized by the eminent 19th century art critic John Ruskin(1819-1900) who labelled it false and destructive. Viollet-le-Duc however was adamant that he was perfecting, not harming, the original medievaldesign.
Building Designs

All Viollet-le-Duc's original architectural designs for churches and other ecclesiastical structures were done in a Gothic style, as exemplified by the churches of Sainte-Gimer (1854-9), Nouvelle Aude (1855), Sainte-Denis-de-l'Estree (1861). Rather surprisingly, however, nearly all of his secular buildings were modelled on Renaissance designs, including elements borrowed from Giulio Romano (1499-1546), Vignola (1507-73) andAndrea Palladio (1508-80).

Writings on Architecture

An active theorist and historical researcher throughout his career, Viollet-le-Duc produced a mass of notes and drawings, illustrating his architectural ideas as well as his actual practice. His two greatest works - upon which his reputation largely rests - were the encyclopedic books entitled: Reasoned Dictionary of French Architecture 11th-16th Century(1854-68), and Reasoned Dictionary of the French Bank from the Carlovingians to the Renaissance (1858-75). Consisting of 16 volumes, these two treatises contained a wealth of exact structural data plus extensive design analysis, which provided the necessary intellectual impetus for the French Gothic Revival movement.

A third important book was his Conversations on Architecture (1858-72). Translated into English as Discourses on Architecture (1874-81) by the architect Benjamin Bucknall (1833–95), it served to systematize his architectural theories and contained details on the construction of iron skeletal frames, which had a huge impact on American architecture, most notably works by William Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907) and the Chicago School of Architecture (c.1880-1910). Other Americans influenced by his theories on Gothic design included Richard Upjohn (1802-78), James Renwick (1818-95) and Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959). In Europe, several of his "iron designs" went on to influence the Art Nouveau style, especially in the work of Hector Guimard (1867-1942), and would have been noted by Gustave Eiffel designer of the celebrated Eiffel Tower(1887-89) in Paris. According to Sir John Newenham Summerson (1904-92), the eminent British architectural historian, Viollet-le-Duc ranks alongside the great Renaissance pioneer Leon Battista Alberti (1404-72) as the greatest theoretician in the field of European architecture.
After a second career as a military engineer in the French army, employed in the defence of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1), Viollet-le-Duc retired to Lausanne, in Switzerland, where he designed and built his own villa (now destroyed). He died there in 1879.
Other 19th Century Architects

Georges-Eugene Haussmann (1809-91)
Radically changed urban layout of Paris
Charles Garnier (1825-98)
French architect, worked with Viollete-le-Duc and Gustav Eiffel
Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-86)
America's greatest Romanesque revivalist
Otto Wagner (1841-1918)
Viennese architect, famous for his ornamental designs
Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926)
Catalan architect, famous for Gothic/Art Nouveau biomorphic designs
Victor Horta (1861-1947)
Art Nouveau architect, noted for glass/cast-iron decorative elements
Joseph Maria Olbrich (1867-1908)
Founder member of Vienna Secession
Hector Guimard (1867-1942)
Art Nouveau architect famous for Paris Metro designs
Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928)
Architect, furniture designer, painter, arts and crafts champion
Peter Behrens (1868-1940)
Founder of Deutscher Werkbund; influenced Gropius, Corbusier, Van der Rohe


For more about Gothic Revival architecture, see: Homepage

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ВИОЛЛЕ-ЛЕ-ДЮК, ЭЖЕН ЭМАНЮЭЛЬ | Энциклопедия Кругосвет

ВИОЛЛЕ-ЛЕ-ДЮК, ЭЖЕН ЭМАНЮЭЛЬ (Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène Emmanuel) (1814–1879), французский историк искусств, реставратор и зодчий, один из лидеров романтического историзма. .. По планам Виолле-ле-Дюка в 1840–1870-е годы реставрировались аббатство Сен-Дени, соборы Нотр-Дам в Париже (совместно с архитектором Ж.-Б.Лассю), Амьене и Клермон-Ферране, крепостные стены и собор Сен-Назер в Каркасоне, церкви Сен-Сернен в Тулузе, Сент-Мадлен в Везле, замок Пьерфон, собор в Лозанне и многие другие здания. Хотя в практике своей мастер увлекался «новоделом», слишком часто домысливая формы и конструкции без достаточных на то оснований, итогом его работ стала впечатляющая сумма археологических знаний. Фундаментальные, тщательно иллюстрированные труды Виолле-ле-Дюка (в первую очередь, 10-томный Толковый словарь французской архитектуры 11–16 вв., 1854–1868, и 6-томный Толковый словарь французской утвари и обстановки от каролингской эпохи до Ренессанса, 1858–1875; последний частично переведен на русский язык) оказали огромное воздействие на развитие неоготического вкуса. Самостоятельные же его постройки (храм Сен-Дени-де-Лестре в Сен-Дени, 1864–1867; и др.) не столь значительны, будучи просто добротными стилизациями под старину.
Как теоретик (изложивший свои взгляды в Беседах об архитектуре, 1858–1872) обращал особое внимание на конструктивную функциональность средневековых сооружений, тем самым предваряя эстетические поиски 20 в. Его книга Американские города и руины (1863) явилась первым крупным научным обзором доколумбовой архитектуры Центральной Америки. По-своему эпохальна и книга Русское искусство, его источники, его составные элементы, его высшее развитие, его будущность (1877, русский перевод – 1879), где Виолле-ле-Дюк очертил своеобразие русской художественной культуры с беспрецедентной для западной науки масштабностью, хотя и переоценил при этом роль «восточных влияний». ..
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Максим Грек.jpg
Максим Грек
https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Максим_Грек

ВАГНЕР Г.К. О СВОЕОБРАЗИИ СТИЛЕОБРАЗОВАНИЯ В АРХИТЕКТУРЕ ДРЕВНЕЙ РУСИ (ВОЗВРАЩЕНИЕ К ПРОБЛЕМЕ)
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Монгольские неонацисты
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Wikipedia:Libri/Possibili origini dell’Uomo moderno - Wikipedia
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki//Wikipedia:Libri/Possibili_origini_dell’Uomo_moderno

Ipotesi dell'origine Euroasiatica
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
(Reindirizzamento da Ipotesi dell'Origine Euroasiatica)
L'Ipotesi dell'origine euroasiatica[1] (o "Out of Eurasia") è un'ipotesi paleoantropologica alternativa alle teorie dominanti come Out of Africa I e Out of Africa II.
Tarsi e Strepsirrhini formano le Proscimmie; lePlatirrine sono le scimmie del Nuovo Mondo, mentre leCatarrine del Vecchio; Orangutan, Scimpanzé eGorilla sono invece le grandi scimmie. Gli Eosimidi(appartenente al sottordine Catarrhini), scoperti in Asia, sembra siano i primi antropoidi[2].
Con Ipotesi dell'origine euroasiatica si possono intendere due diverse ipotesi: l'origine asiatica dei primi Antropoidi, o l'origine asiatica dell'Uomo.

Origine asiatica dei primi Antropoidi[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Secondo questa ipotesi avrebbero avuto origine in Asia i primiAntrhopoidi (all'incirca tra i 37 ed i 45 milioni di anni fa), evoluti successivamente in Griphopithecus (dai 15 ai 16.5 milioni di anni fa) e fino alle scimmie Orangutan e a Homo erectus[3] [4].

Origine asiatica dell'Uomo[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Alcuni studiosi, hanno ipotizzato che Homo ergaster sia migrato dall'Africa verso l'Asia dove si è evoluto in Homo erectus, e che questo sia poi tornato in Africa per poi diventare Homo sapiens.[5]
Le evidenze che gli autori di questa teoria portano sono:
  1. le datazioni dei ritrovamenti in Asia dei primi Ominini, più antiche di quanto si pensava in precedenza (ad esempio l'Homo georgicus a Dmanisi-circa 1,7 milioni di anna fa, a Riwat in Pakistan-1.9 milioni di anna fa, a Ubeidiya nel Medio Oriente-1.5 milioni di anni fa)
  2. lo studio del genoma umano.[6] In particolare gli aplogruppi M, N[7], R del mtDNA o gli aplogruppi D, E, C, F delcromosoma Y.[8]

Altri progetti[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipotesi_dell'origine_Euroasiatica
https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ru&sl=auto&tl=ru&u=https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipotesi_dell'origine_Euroasiatica

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